Understand Yemen’s achievements and challenges in social development
The IPC-IG launches reports and website dedicated to the Yemen National Social Protection Monitoring Survey (NSPMS)
Brasilia, February 13th 2015 – The NSPMS is a household longitudinal survey covering the period of October 2012 to September 2013. Last December 2014, the Final Report and the Executive Summary were launched. Following-up on the publication of new evidence and indicators from a variety of developmental areas, a new website was developed to encourage research, dissemination and knowledge sharing on recent improvements of social protection programmes in Yemen.
Understand the NSPMS Project and how poor and vulnerable populations have coped after the 2011 crisis in Yemen.
The Yemen-NSPMS was designed and implemented by UNICEF and the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation, in collaboration with the International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth (IPC-IG/UNDP), which was responsible for the survey design and analysis, and Interaction in Development, which was responsible for the survey data collection. It was developed under the technical guidance of a multisectoral committee including representatives of the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO), the Social Welfare Fund (SWF), the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, the Ministry of Public Health and Population, the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Finance and Sana’a University.
The project had two key objectives: (1) to provide up-to-date data on how poor and vulnerable populations have coped in Yemen since the 2011 crisis; and (2) to provide evidence on the targeting of the cash transfer programme administered by the SWF and to assess its impact on some important developmental indicators.
The Yemen-NSPMS is a household longitudinal survey with a nationally representative sample of 6,397 households. Each of these households was interviewed on a quarterly basis during a 12-month period between October 2012 and September 2013. The NSPMS provides national data on the SWF, living conditions, water, sanitation, education, child nutrition, child and maternal health, child protection, work and income, livelihoods and food security.
Final Report: main results and policy recommendations
The Yemen-NSPMS found the SWF to be commendably pro-poor and the only source of income for some families. Without this benefit, families would be unable to buy even the most basic food items. The survey revealed that one third of the population of Yemen are covered by the SWF cash transfer programme but also found that many more poor people are not covered. This finding calls for urgent efforts to develop and implement graduation mechanisms in the sense of graduating the non-eligible households and enrolling the poorest.
The report also provides comprehensive and critical information on the inequities in Yemen that have a real impact on the poor and vulnerable, especially children, and prevent them from accessing basic social services. One third of Yemen’s poorest households have to walk more than 30 minutes to access water. Only half of the children in the poorest households are enrolled in basic education, with greater disparities among the poorest girls, of whom only around one third are enrolled. The rate of birth registration is low, at 17 per cent, with great disparities between the poorest and richest children and between urban and rural areas. Malnutrition continues to be a major issue facing children in Yemen, with around half of all Yemeni children under age five years being chronically malnourished. From an equity perspective, malnutrition is a major issue cutting across both rich and poor, although poor children are more vulnerable.
The low levels of access by the poorest households and their children to basic social services and social protection mechanisms call for urgent action by the Government of Yemen and development partners to support a minimum package of basic social services and social transfers, targeted towards the poorest populations in both rural and urban areas.
Improving the targeting of the SWF programme, particularly to cover more extreme poor people with children, is especially needed. If it is not possible to prioritize the inclusion of families with children due to the current legislation of the programme and its categories, other programmes such as an unconditional child allowance or a conditional cash transfer with soft health and education conditionalities could be implemented to make Yemen’s social protection policy more child-sensitive.
The impact evaluation results suggest that special attention should be paid to younger children (due to the prevalence of domestic chores) and older children (due to the prevalence of child labour). Thus, soft conditionalities can be a good instrument. They do not exclude children from the programme who do not have access to school or health centres, while promoting actions that improving children’s well-being, which has been shown in other challenging contexts to be as effective (and less exclusionary) than strict conditionalities.
Download the full version of the Yemen-NSPMS Final Report.
The Yemen-NSPMS platform makes available new data and NSPMS reports covering several socioeconomic dimensions. It aims at encouraging research, disseminating knowledge and informing on improvements of social protection programmes in Yemen.
Researchers, practitioners and policy makers have open access to recent data on how poor and vulnerable populations have coped after the 2011 crisis in Yemen. The downloadable data merges some of SWF administrative information with the survey data, allowing for detailed analysis of targeting and of the effects of the SWF, Yemen’s largest cash transfer programme.
Yemen joined the ‘Arab Spring’ that prevailed in several countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region during 2011. Background documents on the impact of 2011 crisis on Yemeni households and the UNICEF Yemen’s pilot Social Protection Monitoring (SPM) survey are available at http://nspms-yemen.ipc-undp.org/documents/
Short URL: http://pressroom.ipc-undp.org/?p=16858